More than 3,000 hemodialysis patients were examined with single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Distributions of resistance, reactance, phase angle (PA), and estimates of total body water (TBW) and body cell mass (BCM) by BIA were determined, and compared with traditional laboratory markers of nutritional status. Bioimpedance parameters and body composition estimates differed significantly by age, sex, race, and diabetic status. PA and BCM correlated directly with serum creatinine, albumin, and prealbumin concentrations. Population-based norms for bioimpedance parameters and estimates of body composition are provided.