From January 1978 to December 1995, 92 cases of Moyamoya disease were collected from seven major medical centers in Taiwan. The data gave an annual incidence rate of 0.048 per 100,000 population. There were 40 males and 52 females and the ages ranged from 2 to 62 years with the peak incidence in the 31-40 year age group (23 cases). Cerebral infarction occurred in 20 out of 24 juvenile patients (83%), and in 24 out of 68 adult patients (35%). The difference was statistically significant. Haemorrhagic stroke was more frequent in adult patients. Computed tomographic scans following stroke showed cerebral infarction in 44 cases, ventricular haemorrhage in 26 cases, intracerebral haemorrhage in 14 cases and pure subarachnoid haemorrhage in eight. The most frequent initial symptom was motor disturbance (59%), followed by headache (49%) and impaired consciousness (35%). This survey showed an incidence rate much lower than that in Japan, but comparable with those in other Oriental countries and higher than those in Western countries. The male-to-female ratio once differed considerably from that of the Japanese series, but from the present study is now quite similar.