Both regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional vascular reserve (rVR) in ten childhood Moyamoya disease were quantified pre- and post-operatively by autoradiographic processing using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl-rho-iodoamphetamine (IMP) (IMP-ARG method) to estimate hemodynamic effectiveness of surgical revascularization. Before surgery, in two patients, rCBF was reduced in the whole territories and loss of rVR in the anterior circulation was observed; +4.3% in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), -3.0% in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and +17.5% in posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories. After surgery, in eight patients without transient ischemic attack (TIA) episodes, rCBF at rest was maintained around subnormal level in the whole territories, and mean rVR was up to +11.9, +17.3 and +28.3% in ACA, MCA and PCA territories, respectively. However, rVR in the anterior circulation was significantly reduced in comparison with rVR in the posterior circulation. Quantification of both resting rCBF and rVR using IMP-ARG method could provide reliable information concerning on surgical indication and its effectiveness in childhood Moyamoya disease.