Gallbladder cancer and trocar site recurrences

Am J Surg. 1997 Dec;174(6):619-22; discussion 622-3. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9610(97)00178-5.


Background: Critics of laparoscopic surgery cite an increased incidence of tumor recurrence at the trocar sites following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients incidentally found to have carcinoma of the gallbladder. The purpose of this review was to determine if laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in patients with gallbladder cancer results in an increased incidence of abdominal wall recurrences.

Methods: The charts of all patients with gallbladder cancer registered at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from January 1991 through April 1996 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on initial and subsequent surgical procedures, tumor grade and histology, T stage, adjuvant therapy, and survival. These data were analyzed with regard to abdominal wall recurrences and outcome.

Results: Ninety-three patients with gallbladder cancer were seen during this period; 79 patients with complete follow-up information comprised the study population. Comparison of the incidence of abdominal wall recurrences among the categories of surgical procedure (laparoscopic versus open versus laparoscopic converted to open) did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Overall 5-year survival was 10%.

Conclusions: Gallbladder cancer is an aggressive malignancy with few long-term survivors. In addition, these data show that the incidence of abdominal wall implantation is not increased with laparoscopic surgery but is more likely a manifestation of the aggressive nature of this tumor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Muscles*
  • Adenocarcinoma / surgery*
  • Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery
  • Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / surgery
  • Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery
  • Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sarcoma / surgery
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Surgical Instruments