Lung volume reduction surgery in emphysema has, as an objective, the reduction of dyspnoea and an increase in the exercise tolerance in patients with respiratory insufficiency suffering from diffuse emphysema. In principle the resection of the most diseased areas of emphysema leads to improvement in the mechanical properties of the emphysematous lung and correct pulmonary hyperinflation. The respiratory function benefits both objective and subjective, produced by surgery are real but transitory and inconstant depending in particular on the evolutionary profile of the emphysematous disease. The indications should be further refined and an objective comparison of different surgical techniques has not been achieved. The impact on the quality of life for these patients is unknown.