Protective immunity against heterologous challenge with encephalomyocarditis virus by VP1 DNA vaccination: effect of coinjection with a granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gene

Vaccine. 1997 Dec;15(17-18):1827-33. doi: 10.1016/s0264-410x(97)88856-1.


For DNA vaccination studies, recombinant VP1 protein of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) was produced from Escherichia coli, and eukaryotic VP1 expression vector, pCT-Gs-VP1, was generated and used as a DNA vaccine. Mice were immunized intramuscularly (i.m.) with pCT-Gs-VP1 in the presence or absence of plasmid DNA expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and were subsequently analyzed for their anti-VP1 immune responses with recombinant VP1 in ELISA. Immunization of mice with pCT-Gs-VP1 resulted in VP1-specific immune response and 43% protection from subsequent lethal heterologous challenge of EMCV. Coinjection of mice with pCT-Gs-VP1 and plasmid DNA encoding GM-CSF was shown to increase the seroconversion rate of the immunized mice with a single DNA injection, and enhanced to a higher degree VP1-specific immunity, which appeared to result in better protection (about 80%) from lethal virus challenge. Thus, our results provide evidence for the potential use of GM-CSF to induce better immune response and resistance against viral infection in DNA vaccination.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation / immunology
  • COS Cells
  • Capsid / genetics*
  • Capsid / immunology*
  • Capsid Proteins*
  • Cardiovirus Infections / immunology*
  • Cardiovirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • DNA, Viral / administration & dosage*
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • DNA, Viral / immunology
  • Encephalomyocarditis virus / immunology*
  • Female
  • Genetic Therapy*
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Transfection
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines, DNA / therapeutic use*


  • Capsid Proteins
  • DNA, Viral
  • VP1 protein, encephalomyocarditis virus
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor