Carney syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant, multi-system disorder comprising 8 well-characterized findings, only 2 of which need be present for a definitive diagnosis. Benign neoplasms are frequent, but malignancies are thought to be uncommon. We have studied a family to clarify the diagnosis and spectrum of clinical manifestations of the syndrome and to develop guidelines for management. The proposita, a 34-year-old woman had classic findings of Carney syndrome, invasive follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland, Barrett metaplasia of the esophagus, neoplastic colonic polyps, bipolar affective disorder, and atypical mesenchymal neoplasm of the uterine cervix distinct from the myxoid uterine leiomyoma usually seen in this syndrome. Although thyroid gland neoplasm is rare in Carney syndrome, this patient's most aggressive manifestation was her thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis of Carney syndrome was established in her 9-year-old son and is a probable diagnosis in her 12-year-old daughter. Endocrine manifestations were prominent in the family with at least 9 relatives in 3 generations affected with various endocrine abnormalities. The findings in this family indicate that the spectrum of manifestations in this pleiotropic gene apparently includes a malignant course with premalignant and endocrinologic disorders not previously recognized.