Objective: To identify reasons for inconsistent contraceptive use that antedate conception and continue to predispose participants in adolescent-oriented maternity programs to unsafe sexual practices after delivery. We hypothesized that teens who attributed their failure to use contraceptives before their first conception exclusively to concerns about their side effects and/or their own lack of motivation to prevent conception would report less consistent contraceptive use and more repeat conceptions than would teens who attributed their previous failure to use contraceptives to their lack of capacity to do so.
Method: We conducted a 2-year, prospective, longitudinal study of contraceptive use and repeat conceptions in a racially/ethnically diverse population of poor 13- to 18-year-olds. The 198 study participants were enrolled consecutively during their first pregnancies from an adolescent-oriented maternity program.
Results: The majority (84%) of the teens attributed their failure to use contraceptives before their first pregnancy partially to a lack of capacity to do so. As hypothesized, these teen mothers were significantly more likely to use hormonal contraceptives (85% vs 62%), (particularly Norplant, 47% vs 19%) and less likely to conceive again (13% vs 41%). Most teens attributed their inconsistent contraceptive use during the postpartum study period to three factors: side effects, plans to abstain from sexual intercourse, and their lack of motivation to postpone additional childbearing.
Conclusions: The reasons teen mothers give for not using contraceptives consistently before their first pregnancies predict the occurrence of subsequent conceptions during adolescence. Those who attribute their previous failure to use contraceptives consistently to side-effect concerns and their own lack of motivation to postpone childbearing are least likely to use hormonal contraceptives after delivery and most likely to conceive again. Our findings suggest that future research should focus on the development of more effective interventions for preventing repeat conceptions among adolescent mothers who had the capacity to prevent their first pregnancies.