Bin1 is a Myc-interacting protein with features of a tumor suppressor. The high level of Bin1 expression in skeletal muscle prompted us to investigate its role in muscle differentiation. Significant levels of Bin1 were observed in undifferentiated C2C12 myoblasts, a murine in vitro model system. Induction of differentiation by growth factor withdrawal led to an upregulation of Bin1 mRNA and to the generation of higher-molecular-weight forms of Bin1 protein by alternate splicing. While Bin1 in undifferentiated cells was localized exclusively in the nucleus, differentiation-associated isoforms of Bin1 were found in the cytoplasm as well. To examine the function of Bin1 during differentiation, we generated stable cell lines that express exogenous human Bin1 cDNA in the sense or antisense orientation. Cells overexpressing Bin1 grew more slowly than control cells and differentiated more rapidly when deprived of growth factors. In contrast, C2C12 cells expressing antisense Bin1 showed an impaired ability to undergo differentiation. Taken together, the results indicated that Bin1 expression, structure, and localization are tightly regulated during muscle differentiation and suggested that Bin1 plays a functional role in the differentiation process.