The molecular evolution of the vertebrate trypsinogens

J Mol Evol. 1997 Dec;45(6):640-52. doi: 10.1007/pl00006268.


We expand the already large number of known trypsinogen nucleotide and amino acid sequences by presenting additional trypsinogen sequences from the tunicate (Boltenia villosa), the lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), the pufferfish (Fugu rubripes), and the frog (Xenopus laevis). The current array of known trypsinogen sequences now spans the entire vertebrate phylogeny. Phylogenetic analysis is made difficult by the presence of multiple isozymes within species and rates of evolution that vary highly between both species and isozymes. We nevertheless present a Fitch-Margoliash phylogeny constructed from pairwise distances. We employ this phylogeny as a vehicle for speculation on the evolution of the trypsinogen gene family as well as the general modes of evolution of multigene families. Unique attributes of the lamprey and tunicate trypsinogens are noted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Anions
  • Cations
  • Chickens
  • Cystine / chemistry
  • Cystine / genetics
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • Dogs
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Exons
  • Humans
  • Introns
  • Lampreys
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Peptides / chemistry
  • Peptides / genetics
  • Protein Sorting Signals / chemistry
  • Protein Sorting Signals / genetics
  • Rats
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Trypsin / physiology
  • Trypsinogen / chemistry*
  • Trypsinogen / genetics*
  • Trypsinogen / metabolism
  • Urochordata


  • Anions
  • Cations
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • Peptides
  • Protein Sorting Signals
  • Cystine
  • Trypsinogen
  • Trypsin