Factors affecting outcome after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients from Western countries are not clearly defined. Different clinicopathological factors, including DNA ploidy and expression of p53 and CD44H proteins were evaluated retrospectively in 113 patients undergoing curative resection; 11 clinical and 12 pathological factors were studied. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis of outcome predictors for 103 HCC was assessed by Cox regression. By univariate analysis, survival was significantly better in patients with a high serum albumin level >4.0 g/dl, a normal serum alpha-fetoprotein level and an absence of microscopic vascular invasion by the tumor. In multivariate analysis, only high serum albumin level and absence of vascular invasion were found to be independent favorable predictive factors. CD44H expression was significantly correlated with vascular involvement. However, CD44H and p53 expression did not affect survival. The DNA ploidy pattern showed a bimodal distribution, but did not influence the survival rate. This study suggests that pre-operative level of albumin and microscopic vascular invasion can predict long-term survival in patients who have undergone curative resection for HCC. By contrast, the DNA-ploidy pattern and the immunohistochemical detection of p53 and CD44H expression are not predictors of outcome of patients with HCC.