Organ transplantation is a marvel of 20th century medicine. However, it is not without costs. Complications of transplant procedures, particularly neurologic complications, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Neurologic complications in the transplant population may be divided into three groups: those occurring prior to transplantation, those in the perioperative period, and those arising weeks to months after the procedure. This review discusses neurologic complications associated with organ failure and transplantation in the perioperative period.