Maximizing performance feedback effectiveness through videotape replay and a self-controlled learning environment

Res Q Exerc Sport. 1997 Dec;68(4):269-79. doi: 10.1080/02701367.1997.10608008.


This study was designed to examine whether participants who could control the schedule of performance feedback (KP) would learn differentially from those who received a rigid feedback schedule while learning a complex task. Participants (N = 48) were randomly assigned to self-controlled KP (SELF), summary KP (SUMMARY), yoked control (YOKE), or knowledge of results only (KR) conditions. Data collection consisted of an acquisition phase and a 4-day retention phase during which right-handed participants performed a left-handed ball throw. Overall, throwing form improved across trial blocks during acquisition, with the SUMMARY, SELF, and YOKE groups showing more improvement than the KR group. During retention, the SELF group retained a higher level of throwing form and accuracy in comparison to the other groups. Results suggest that when given the opportunity to control the feedback environment, learners require relatively less feedback to acquire skills and retain those skills at a level equivalent to or surpassing those who are given more feedback but receive it passively.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Biofeedback, Psychology / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Knowledge of Results, Psychological
  • Learning / physiology*
  • Male
  • Motor Skills / physiology*
  • Video Recording*