A method for mitochondria isolation and interspecific transfer of mitochondria was developed in mice. Mitochondria were isolated from Mus spretus liver samples for microinjection into fertilized ova obtained from superovulated M. musculus domesticus females. Electron microscopic observations of mitochondria preparations used for microinjection demonstrated intact mitochondrial vesicles with little microsomal contamination. Species-specific nested PCR primers complementary to sequence differences in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region revealed high rates of successful transfer of foreign mitochondria after isolation and injection into zygotes cultured through the blastocyst stage of embryonic development. Of 217 zygotes, 67 survived mitochondria injection and 23 out of 37 zygotes developed were at the blastocyst-stage of embryonic development after 4.5 days of in vitro culture. All 23 of these blastocysts contained detectable levels of foreign mitochondria. These results represent an initial step in developing a model system to study mitochondrial dynamics and development of therapeutic strategies for human metabolic diseases affected by aberrations in mitochondrial function or mutation.