Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) effects on the estrous cycle of adult Long-Evans rats were examined in four different experiments. Sexual receptivity, vaginal cytology, and body weight were monitored throughout two-week baseline, AAS treatment, and recovery periods. In Experiments 1-3, rats were administered stanozolol, oxymetholone, or testosterone cypionate within dose ranges selected to mimic the human abuse levels of each compound. In these studies, the highest doses of stanozolol (5 mg/kg), oxymetholone (12 mg/kg), or testosterone cypionate (7.5 mg/kg) disrupted the cyclical display of sexual receptivity and vaginal estrus. To compare effects on estrous cyclicity across AAS compounds, rats in Experiment 4 received a single dose (7.5 mg/kg) of each compound for 2 weeks. At the 7.5 mg/kg dose, all AAS compounds interfered with the cyclical display of vaginal estrus, although effects on sexual receptivity were not uniform. No striking AAS effects on body weight were seen in any experiment. The short-term administration of AAS compounds at high doses disrupts female neuroendocrine function in rats.