We have isolated four members of the Arabidopsis cyclophilin (CyP) gene family, designated ROC1 to ROC4 (rotamase CyP). Deduced peptides of ROC1, 2 and 3 are 75% to 91% identical to Brassica napus cytosolic CyP, contain no leader peptides and include a conserved seven amino-acid insertion relative to mammalian cytosolic CyPs. Two other Arabidopsis CyPs, ROC5 (43H1; ATCYP1) and ROC6 (ATCYP2), share these features. ROC1, ROC2, ROC3 and ROC5 are expressed in all tested organs of light-grown plants. ROC2 and ROC5 show elevated expression in flowers. Expression of ROC1, ROC2, and ROC3 decreases in darkness and these genes also exhibit small elevations in expression upon wouding. The five Arabidopsis genes encoding putative cytosolic CyPs (ROC1, 2, 3, 5 and 6) contain no introns. In contrast, ROC4, which encodes a chloroplast stromal CyP, is interrupted by six introns. ROC4 is not expressed in roots, and is strongly induced by light. Phylogenetic trees of all known CyPs and CyP-related proteins provide evidence of possible horizontal transfer of CyP genes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes and of a possible polyphyletic origin of these proteins within eukaryotes. These trees also show significant grouping of eukaryotic CyPs on the basis of subcellular localization and structure. Mitochondrial CyPs are closely related to cytosolic CyPs of the source organism, but endoplasmic reticulum CyPs form separate clades. Known plant CyPs fall into three clades, one including the majority of higher-plant cytosolic CyPs, one including only ROC2 and a related rice CyP, and one including only chlorplast CyPs.