Infection by Ebola virus causes rapidly progressive, often fatal, symptoms of fever, hemorrhage and hypotension. Previous attempts to elicit protective immunity for this disease have not met with success. We report here that protection against the lethal effects of Ebola virus can be achieved in an animal model by immunizing with plasmids encoding viral proteins. We analyzed immune responses to the viral nucleoprotein (NP) and the secreted or transmembrane forms of the glycoprotein (sGP or GP) and their ability to protect against infection in a guinea pig infection model analogous to the human disease. Protection was achieved and correlated with antibody titer and antigen-specific T-cell responses to sGP or GP. Immunity to Ebola virus can therefore be developed through genetic vaccination and may facilitate efforts to limit the spread of this disease.