ATR, a phosphatidylinositol kinase-related protein homologous to ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), is important for the survival of human cells following many forms of DNA damage. Expression of a kinase-inactive allele of ATR (ATRkd) in human fibroblasts causes increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR), cis-platinum and methyl methanesulfonate, but only slight UV radiation sensitivity. ATRkd overexpression abrogates the G2/M arrest after exposure to IR, and overexpression of wild-type ATR complements the radioresistant DNA synthesis phenotype of cells lacking ATM, suggesting a potential functional overlap between these proteins. ATRkd overexpression also causes increased sensitivity to hydroxyurea that is associated with microtubule-mediated nuclear abnormalities. These observations are consistent with uncoupling of certain mitotic events from the completion of S-phase. Thus, ATR is an important component of multiple DNA damage response pathways and may be involved in the DNA replication (S/M) checkpoint.