In vitro susceptibilities of recent field isolates of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae to valnemulin (Econor), tiamulin and enrofloxacin and the in vitro development of resistance to certain antimicrobial agents in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

Res Vet Sci. 1997 Sep-Oct;63(2):157-60. doi: 10.1016/s0034-5288(97)90010-2.


The in vitro activities of valnemulin (Econor) and two other antimicrobial agents were determined against recent field strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae using a broth microdilution method. Valnemulin showed exceptional activity against M hyopneumoniae (MIC90 0.0005 microgram ml-1) and M hyosynoviae (MIC range 0.0001 microgram ml-1 to 0.00025 microgram ml-1) field strains. Tiamulin was 100-fold less active (MIC90 0.05 microgram ml-1) and enrofloxacin 20-fold less active (MIC90 0.01 microgram ml-1) than valnemulin against M hyopneumoniae field isolates and 20-fold to 25-fold less active (MIC range 0.0025 microgram ml-1 to 0.005 microgram ml-1) and 400-fold to 500-fold less active (MIC range 0.05 microgram ml-1 to 0.1 microgram ml-1) respectively against M hyosynoviae field isolates. No significant resistance developed to valnemulin or tiamulin in the type strain of M hyopneumoniae (strain J) or in a recent field isolate (MEVT G23) exposed to 10 in vitro passages in broths containing these antibiotics. Only slight resistance to oxytetracycline was observed. High resistance to tylosin developed in both M hyopneumoniae strains within five to seven in vitro passages in tylosin-containing broth. Providing that similar results are obtained in vivo under field conditions, valnemulin may well prove to be effective in the treatment of enzootic pneumonia and acute polyarthritis in pigs.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Diterpenes / pharmacology
  • Diterpenes / therapeutic use
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial / physiology
  • Enrofloxacin
  • Fluoroquinolones*
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Lung / microbiology
  • Lung / pathology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests / veterinary
  • Mycoplasma / classification
  • Mycoplasma / drug effects*
  • Mycoplasma / physiology
  • Mycoplasma Infections / drug therapy
  • Mycoplasma Infections / pathology
  • Mycoplasma Infections / veterinary
  • Oxytetracycline / pharmacology
  • Oxytetracycline / therapeutic use
  • Quinolones / pharmacology*
  • Quinolones / therapeutic use
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases / drug therapy
  • Swine Diseases / pathology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Diterpenes
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Quinolones
  • Enrofloxacin
  • tiamulin
  • Oxytetracycline