TRAIL induces apoptosis through two closely related receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5). Here we show that TRAIL-R1 can associate with TRAIL-R2, suggesting that TRAIL may signal through heteroreceptor signaling complexes. Both TRAIL receptors bind the adaptor molecules FADD and TRADD, and both death signals are interrupted by a dominant negative form of FADD and by the FLICE-inhibitory protein FLIP. The recruitment of TRADD may explain the potent activation of NF-kappaB observed by TRAIL receptors. Thus, TRAIL receptors can signal both death and gene transcription, functions reminiscent of those of TNFR1 and TRAMP, two other members of the death receptor family.