Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhi (NARST) was first isolated in Viet Nam in 1993. Analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA in 20 NARST isolates by polymerase chain reaction and single-stranded conformational polymorphism yielded two novel patterns: pattern II corresponding to a point mutation at nucleotide 87 Asp-->Gly (n = 17), and pattern III corresponding to a point mutation at nucleotide 83 Ser-->Phe (n = 3). In trials of short-course ofloxacin therapy for uncomplicated typhoid, 117 (78%) of 150 patients were infected with multidrug-resistant S. typhi, 18 (15%) of which were NARST. The median time to fever clearance was 156 hours (range, 30-366 hours) for patients infected with NARST and 84 hours (range, 12-378 hours) for those infected with nalidixic acid-susceptible strains (P < .001). Six (33.3%) of 18 NARST infections required retreatment, whereas 1 (0.8%) of 132 infections due to susceptible strains required retreatment (relative risk = 44; 95% confidence interval = 5.6-345; P < .0001). We recommend that short courses of quinolones not be used in patients infected with NARST.