Cigarette smoking continues to be the single, most preventable cause of death and disability in the United States. For individuals who have cancer, continuing to smoke negatively impacts their treatment, survival, and risk for second primary tumors. This review of behavioral and pharmacological approaches to smoking cessation focuses on the recent comprehensive review of cessation interventions by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), as well as on new developments in the field. An intervention model is outlined that provides oncologists with a brief and easily implemented method of systematically treating patients who smoke. By assessing patient smoking status, advising smoking patients to quit, and proactively assisting their patients in quitting, oncologists can significantly influence patient health and fulfill their professional and ethical responsibility to address this life-threatening behavior.