Multiple experiments in male Wistar rats were designed to clarify the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the mechanisms of oxidative stress-related diseases and toxicity-induced pathologies. In this particular report, 21 male Wistar rats were supplemented ad libitum with either As3+ or Cr3+ salts in drinking water to assess insulin secretion patterns in vivo and in vitro, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, liver damage, basal insulin, and glucose tolerance curves, among other parameters. Results were compared with a control group without any metal supplementation. The CrCl3 supplements were more invasive of metabolism and had a stronger effect on mitochondrial dysfunction than As3+, despite that both seem to use similar mechanisms of toxicity; viz.: binding to thiol or -SS- group in enzymes and proteins, and releasing oxidant species during their redox-cycling and metabolic activation processes, e.g., by cytochrome P450 in liver. Results support our aim to prove the influence of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction on glycemic control.