This report describes the case of a woman in whom multiple compression fractures of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine occurred in association with long-term corticosteroid therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus. Pain markedly limited the patient's mobility and daily activities, and conservative therapy with bracing and narcotic analgesics gave little improvement. Affected vertebrae were treated with polymethylmethacrylate, introduced percutaneously under fluoroscopic guidance. The resulting reinforcement of the fractured vertebral bodies eliminated the pain and the need for narcotic analgesics. The utilization of percutaneous verterbroplasty as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of pain resulting from osteoporotic compression fractures is described.