The authors describe the case of a 9-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation because she suffered from severe hypoxemia caused by patent ductus venosus (PDV). Generally, severe hypoxemia (PaO2 < 50 mm Hg in room air or < 300 mm Hg in pure oxygen) is not an indication for liver transplantation because the hypoxemia may not be improved, and may lead to a fatal outcome. PDV, which is associated with mild liver dysfunction, is not an indication for liver transplantation by itself. But in our patient, most of the mesenteric venous flow directly entered the systemic circulation through the PDV just like the portosystemic shunt, and this caused the pulmonary arteriovenous shunt and hypoxemia. Thus, the authors operated on the patient in an attempt to restore her pulmonary function. Nitric oxide (10 to 20 ppm) was added to the inhaled gas to dilate the functional pulmonary capillaries and to deliver sufficient oxygen after the transplantation. Although the patient suffered various complications after the operation, the final results were excellent.