Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRP) is of worldwide concern. Treatment failures and fatalities of meningitis caused by PRP have been reported in other locations but not yet in Israel. We describe an 11-month-old infant with meningitis caused by PRP who failed to respond to initial treatment with cefotaxime. Vancomycin treatment caused a prompt cure. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the isolate to penicillin, cefuroxime and cefotaxime were 1.0, 4.0 and 1.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. New guidelines for the treatment of meningitis in Israel are suggested.