Many marine organisms are luminescent. The proteins that produce the light include a primary light producer (aequorin or luciferase) and often a secondary photoprotein that red shifts the light for better penetration in the ocean. Green fluorescent protein is one such secondary protein. It is remarkable in that it autocatalyzes the formation of its own fluorophore and thus can be expressed in a variety of organisms in its fluorescent form. The recent determination of its 3D structure and other physical characterizations are revealing its molecular mechanism of action.