Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients with and without prior alcohol dependence. A preliminary study

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Jan;55(1):41-6. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.55.1.41.


Background: Few studies of the neurocognitive performance of patients with bipolar disorder have been performed while patients are in the euthymic state.

Methods: Twenty-five euthymic bipolar patients (12 with and 13 without a history of alcohol dependence) were compared with 22 normal control subjects on a neuropsychological test battery assessing a range of cognitive domains. The relationship between subjects' neurocognitive performance and the course-of-illness variables (lifetime episodes and duration of mania, depression, or both), as well as current lithium level, was determined.

Results: The results indicated differences across the groups, with the bipolar patients with and without alcohol dependence performing more poorly than controls on tests of verbal memory. Furthermore, bipolar subjects with a history of alcohol dependence had additional decrements in executive (i.e., frontal lobe) functions when compared with controls. For subjects in the bipolar group, lifetime months of mania and depression were negatively correlated with performance in verbal memory and several executive function measures.

Conclusions: Our findings support the presence of persistent neurocognitive difficulties in patients with long-standing bipolar disorder who are not in the psychiatrically acute state or who are suffering the effects of alcohol abuse and suggest that there may be an aggregate negative effect of lifetime duration of bipolar illness on memory and frontal or executive systems.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alcoholism / epidemiology*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Bipolar Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Bipolar Disorder / epidemiology
  • Bipolar Disorder / psychology
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology
  • Comorbidity
  • Frontal Lobe / physiology
  • Humans
  • Lithium / blood
  • Male
  • Memory
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests / statistics & numerical data
  • Verbal Learning


  • Lithium