At one time, when antacids were the primary medical means of treating peptic ulcer disease, the milk-alkali syndrome was not an uncommon cause of hypercalcemia. The simultaneous occurrence of hypercalcemia, alkalosis, and renal failure, in conjunction with the appropriate history of ingestion fof antacids, was suggestive of the syndrome. With the advent of antisecretory therapy, however, the milk-alkali syndrome has become an uncommon diagnosis. I report a case of milk-alkali syndrome and review the history of this syndrome as reported in the medical literature. Contemporary reports have focused on understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Recent series have identified a shifting demographic profile, as increasing numbers of elderly women consume calcium carbonate as an anti-osteoporosis measure.