(Carboxyalkyl)pyrroles in human plasma and oxidized low-density lipoproteins

Chem Res Toxicol. 1997 Dec;10(12):1387-96. doi: 10.1021/tx970112c.


Free-radical oxidation of human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) produces (carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP) epitopes that were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antibodies raised against keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-bound 2-(omega-carboxyheptyl)-pyrrole (CHP) and 2-(omega-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP). These antibodies exhibit high structural selectivity (< 0.5% cross-reactivity) in competitive binding inhibition assays with the corresponding human serum albumin (HSA)-bound pyrroles. No cross-reactivity was detected for HSA-bound 2-pentylpyrrole, an epitope that is generated by a reaction of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) with protein lysyl residues. Oxidation of either arachidonic or linoleic acid in the presence of HSA produced an HNE-derived 2-pentylpyrrole epitope. However, only oxidation of linoleic acid formed HSA-bound CHP, while only oxidation of arachidonic acid generated HSA-bound CPP. Since ester hydrolysis with KOH markedly elevated levels of immunoreactive epitopes detected in oxidized LDL, the CAPs are presumably generated by reactions of oxidized cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and phospholipids with LDL protein, and only some of these oxidized esters are hydrolyzed, e.g., by phospholipase activity associated with LDL. Protein-bound CHP immunoreactivity was detected in human plasma, and levels are significantly elevated in renal failure and atherosclerosis patients compared with healthy volunteers. This provides the first evidence for the biological occurrence of protein-bound CAPs in vivo and further suggests that free-radical oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids produces hydroxyalkenal carboxylate esters whose gamma-hydroxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde functionality and reactivity resemble that of HNE.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Animals
  • Antibody Specificity / immunology
  • Arachidonic Acid / metabolism
  • Arteriosclerosis / immunology
  • Binding, Competitive / immunology
  • Cross Reactions / immunology*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Epitopes / immunology*
  • Hemocyanins / immunology
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / immunology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Linoleic Acid / metabolism
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / immunology*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Pyrroles / chemistry
  • Pyrroles / immunology*
  • Rabbits
  • Serum Albumin / immunology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Epitopes
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • Pyrroles
  • Serum Albumin
  • oxidized low density lipoprotein
  • Arachidonic Acid
  • Hemocyanins
  • Linoleic Acid
  • keyhole-limpet hemocyanin