3D multivoxel proton spectroscopy of human brain using a hybrid of 8th-order Hadamard encoding with 2D chemical shift imaging

Magn Reson Med. 1998 Jan;39(1):34-40. doi: 10.1002/mrm.1910390108.


Multivoxel 3D localized proton spectroscopy using a hybrid of 1D 8th-order transverse Hadamard spectroscopic imaging (HSI) with 2D chemical shift imaging (CSI) is demonstrated in human brain. The spatially selective HSI pulse incorporates naturally into the PRESS sequence (TE = 135 ms), which then both excites an 8 x 8 x 6 cm parallelepiped volume of interest (VOI) and subdivides it into eight slices. The planes of these slices are further partitioned into 16 x 16 voxel arrays using 2D CSI to yield 8 x 8 x 8 voxels within the VOI. Simultaneous 3D coverage yields good voxel signal-to-noise (8, 12, and 22 for choline, creatine, and N-acetylaspartate, respectively) from these 0.75-ml voxels, in approximately 45 min. The high spatial isolation allows localization to within less than 1 cm from the skull without fat contamination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Artifacts*
  • Brain / anatomy & histology*
  • Female
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / instrumentation
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods*
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Protons
  • Reference Values
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Protons