Few data for normal urinary oxalate (Ox) and calcium (Ca) excretion related both to gestational age and nutritional factors have been reported in preterm or term infants. We therefore determined the molar Ox and Ca to creatinine (Cr) ratios in spot urines from 64 preterm and 37 term infants aged 1-60 days, either fed formula or human milk (HM). Only vitamin D was supplemented; renal or metabolic diseases were excluded. Urinary Ox/Cr ratio was higher in preterm than in term infants, both when formula fed (1st month 253 vs. 180 mmol/mol and 2nd month 306 vs. 212 mmol/mol; P<0.05) or HM fed (206 vs. 169 mmol/ mol and 283* vs. 232 mmol/mol; *P<0.05). Ox/Cr was also higher in formula- than HM-fed preterm infants. The ratio increased during the first 2 months of life irrespective of nutrition. Urinary Ca/Cr ratio was comparable in all groups during the 1st month of life, except for a lower (P < 0.05) value in term infants fed HM (0.10 mol/mol). It increased in all groups during the 2nd month of life, being highest in HM-fed preterm infants (1.86 mol/mol). In conclusion, urinary Ox and Ca excretion is influenced by both gestational age and nutrient intake in preterm and term infants.