In 3 experiments, adult male Long-Evans rats were castrated and treated daily with an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) compound (either stanozolol, oxymetholone, or testosterone cypionate) for 6 weeks. Subjects were assigned to 5 groups that received injections of a high, medium, or low dose of the AAS, testosterone propionate, or the oil vehicle. Stanozolol failed to maintain ejaculation at any dose tested. Although some subjects receiving the low dose of oxymetholone ejaculated, oxymetholone generally failed to stimulate ejaculation above the levels of the oil group. Testosterone cypionate sustained ejaculation at all doses tested. The relative potency of the medium dose of each AAS in the sex accessory tissues was (from most potent to least potent): testosterone cypionate > stanozolol = oxymetholone = oil. Thus, these 3 AAS compounds produced a range of behavioral and endocrine responses in castrated male rats.