Purpose: To report branch retinal artery occlusion caused by diathermy of a persistent hyaloid artery.
Methods: Case report. A 21-year-old woman with unilateral tractional retinal detachment caused by contraction of the persistent primary vitreous underwent vitrectomy with endocoagulation of the primary hyaloid artery.
Results: Postoperatively, the patient had opacification of the neurosensory retina in the area of the inferotemporal branch retinal artery accompanied by a corresponding visual field defect.
Conclusions: Diathermy of a persistent hyaloid artery may be complicated by the occlusion of a branch retinal artery. In similar cases, atypical branches of retinal arteries must be considered. Dissection of the anomaly from the posterior lens capsule should be performed without coagulation or perhaps endoscopically if visualization is obscured by a Mittendorf dot.