8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) was first reported in 1984 as a major form of oxidative DNA damage product by heated sugar, Fenton-type reagents and X-irradiation in vitro. 8-OH-dG has been detected in cellular DNA using an HPLC-ECD method in many laboratories. Analyses of 8-OH-dG in animal organ DNA after the administration of oxygen radical-forming chemicals will be useful for assessments of their carcinogenic risk. Its analysis in human leucocyte DNA and in urine is a new approach to the assessment of an individual's cancer risk due to oxidative stress. The increase of the 8-OH-dG level in the cellular DNA, detected by HPLC-ECD method, was supported by its immunochemical detection and its enhanced repair activity. The validity of the general use of 8-OH-dG as a marker of cellular oxidative stress is discussed.