Glaucoma after macular hole surgery

Ophthalmology. 1998 Jan;105(1):94-9; discussion 99-100. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(98)91470-1.


Objective: The study aimed to report incidence and to assess risk factors of postoperative glaucoma in patients with stage 3 idiopathic macular hole treated with pars plana vitrectomy, removal of posterior hyaloid membrane, and perfluoropropane gas tamponade.

Design: The author performed a retrospective chart review and statistical analysis of risk factors of postoperative glaucoma by using chi-square statistics, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression.

Participants: Forty consecutive patients with stage 3 idiopathic macular hole who were operated on between January 1994 and December 1995 were studied.

Intervention: A pars plana vitrectomy, removal of posterior hyaloid membrane, and 14% perfluoropropane gas tamponade were done to all patients.

Main outcome measures: Preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure measurements were performed.

Results: Twenty-one (52%) of 40 patients experienced transient intraocular pressure elevation to more than 30 mmHg. Nine (22%) had pressure elevation within 2 to 4 hours, 6 (15%) in 24 hours, and 6 (15%) in 1 week after surgery. Three patients, including one with a history of preoperative ocular hypertension, required extended topical antiglaucoma medication. Factors of age, race, gender, lens status, preoperative intraocular pressure (all preoperative intraocular pressure were 25 mmHg or less), and success in closure of macular hole were not to any statistically significant degree associated with postoperative pressure elevation.

Conclusion: Glaucoma is a significant complication after stage 3 macular hole surgery even without adjunctive therapy. Usually happening within the first postoperative week, elevation of intraocular pressure in most cases is transient and can be controlled by medication. However, extended medication might become necessary in some cases.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Female
  • Fluorocarbons / administration & dosage
  • Glaucoma / epidemiology
  • Glaucoma / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications*
  • Retinal Perforations / surgery*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Vitrectomy / adverse effects


  • Fluorocarbons
  • perflutren