Epidemiology of and risk factors for pancreatic cancer

Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 1998 Jan;7(1):67-91.


In the United States, incidence of and mortality from pancreatic cancer increased for several decades earlier in this century but have tended to level off in recent years. Rates increase with age and are higher in blacks than in whites and higher in men than in women. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of pancreatic cancer, while alcohol consumption largely shows no relationship, coffee consumption shows little, if any, association, and a number of occupational exposures seem to be associated but the results are not fully consistent. Finally, human studies have suggested positive associations with meat consumption and carbohydrate intake and a protective effect of dietary fiber and consumption of fruits and vegetables. Thus, much progress has been made in the last two decades in identifying risk factors, but much epidemiologic work is needed to identify and reduce putative exposures.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology