Therapy of hyperuricemia and gout has to depend on pathogenesis and stage of the disease. Dietary regimen are in the forefront in treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Uric acid lowering drugs can only be supported in repeated serum-measures from 9 mg/dl up. The therapy of an acute attack of gout primarily is done with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, in rare cases with colchicine or corticoids. Gouty arthritis in intermission, independent of the extent of hyperuricemia, as well as chronic gout are indications for an uric acid lowering pharmacotherapy, usually for life. A special therapeutic challenge arises out of renal complications and the frequent association with the metabolic syndrome.