Recent advances in MR imaging coupled with specially designed phased-array surface coils are revolutionizing imaging of the peripheral nervous system. Direct visualization of normal-sized major peripheral nerves within the body is now possible. This article describes the appearance of normal peripheral nerves together with imaging characteristics of various types of nerve pathology including traumatic injury, compressive syndromes, and neural tumors. Imaging of the brachial plexus, lumbosacral plexus, carpal tunnel, cubital tunnel, and cervical nerves is illustrated and discussed. MR neurography techniques permit imaging detection of peripheral nervous system pathology that in some cases allow earlier and more accurate diagnosis. It is believed that this will ultimately lead to improved understanding of peripheral nerve pathophysiology that will, in turn, lead to improved treatment.