The pathogenetic role of anti-GM1 in chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy (CADP) is uncertain. An association between antibodies and disease activity has not yet been established. In 8 patients with CADP followed longitudinally, anti-GM1 antibodies were monitored with a standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and muscle performance with isokinetic dynamometry. During a mean observation period of 24 months, strength improved in 6 of 8 patients by a median value of 54.5%, and anti-GM1 fell in all 6 patients; the reduction being 43%. In 2 patients, muscle performance deteriorated by 30 and 8%, whereas anti-GM1 titers increased by 10 and 9%, respectively. The relative change in anti-GM1 was inversely related to muscle performance. Clinical scoring of muscle performance according to the Medical Research Council scale failed to show an association with anti-GM1. It is concluded that anti-GM1 antibodies are closely related to disease activity, and that the close association indicates a role of anti-GM1 in the pathogenesis of CADP.