Mitochondrial A7445G mutation in two pedigrees with palmoplantar keratoderma and deafness

Am J Med Genet. 1998 Jan 13;75(2):179-85.


A New Zealand and a Scottish pedigree with maternally inherited sensorineural deafness were both previously shown to carry a heteroplasmic A7445G mutation in the mitochondrial genome. More detailed clinical examination of the New Zealand family showed that the hearing loss was progressive, with the severity of the overall loss and the frequencies most affected differing markedly between individuals of similar age, and showed that many relatives also had palmoplantar keratoderma. Review of the literature demonstrated three other large families with presumed autosomal dominant inheritance of palmoplantar keratoderma and hearing loss. In a United Kingdom pedigree the syndrome was transmitted by female and male parents, an inheritance pattern which made mitochondrial inheritance unlikely; however, in a Turkish and a Japanese pedigree the affected individuals were all maternally related. Subsequent analysis of the Japanese pedigree documented the same A7445G mitochondrial mutation as was previously found in the New Zealand and Scottish pedigrees. Other mitochondrial sequence variants previously reported in the New Zealand or Scottish pedigrees were absent from the Japanese pedigree which suggests that the A7445G mutation arose independently in all three pedigrees. To our knowledge palmoplantar keratoderma has not previously been associated with mitochondrial defects; however, the current findings suggest that the A7445G mutation is associated not only with progressive hearing loss but also with palmoplantar keratoderma. The penetrance and expressivity of both symptoms varied considerably between individuals in the Scottish and New Zealand Studies which suggests that additional environmental and/or genetic factors are involved.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics*
  • Deafness / genetics*
  • Extrachromosomal Inheritance*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar / genetics*
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar / pathology
  • Male
  • New Zealand
  • Pedigree
  • Point Mutation*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Scotland
  • Skin / pathology


  • DNA, Mitochondrial