Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in humans is still not clear. We have developed a sensitive and specific serological assay for M. genitalium using lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) as antigens. Antibodies to LAMPs from M. genitalium showed little cross-reactivity to LAMPs from antigenically similar M. pneumoniae. For validity testing, urines from 104 patients were tested by PCR for M. genitalium. All 15 PCR+ patients had M. genitalium-LAMPs antibodies. Moreover, none of 64 antibody-negative patients were PCR+. Serological study of 1800 patients of various diseased groups and healthy blood donors showed M. genitalium was primarily a sexually transmitted microbe that infected patients with AIDS (44.0%), intravenous drugs users with or without HIV infection (42.5%), and also HIV- patients attending STD clinics (42.6%). Only 5.5% HIV- healthy blood donors and 1.3% HIV+ hemophiliacs tested positive. M. genitalium has been associated with acute non-gonococcal urethritis in male patients. However, many sexually active men and women appear to be chronically infected or colonized by the microbe without apparent clinical symptoms and may continue to transmit the organism through sexual contacts.