In earlier studies, Hamasaki et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:7918-7922, 1991) and Barkalow et al. (J. Cell Biol. 126:727-735, 1994) found that cAMP- and Ca2+-sensitive phosphorylation of a 29 kDa dynein light chain (p29) extracted from 22S axonemal dynein of Paramecium, regulates the velocity of in vitro microtubule translocation and ciliate swimming speed. In this study we report evidence of recombination of p29 to cytoplasmic dyneins from both rat liver and Paramecium, as well as to a 22S dynein precursor molecule, based on immunoprecipitation and force filtration data. Immunoprecipitation also provides additional evidence for the binding of p29 to 22S axonemal dynein. The results suggest that p29 might regulate cytoplasmic dynein, as well as axonemal dynein function in Paramecium, and that a homologue of p29 may exist in rat liver and other mammalian cells.