Enhanced nephrotoxicity of acetaminophen in fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemic rats: contribution of oxidation and deacetylation of acetaminophen to an enhancement of nephrotoxicity

Exp Toxicol Pathol. 1997 Dec;49(5):313-9. doi: 10.1016/S0940-2993(97)80090-5.


Fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats become resistant to hepatotoxicity and susceptible to nephrotoxicity of acetaminophen (APAP) as compared with normal SD rats. Fischer-344 rats, which are susceptible to APAP nephrotoxicity, have two toxic metabolic pathways involving cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation of APAP to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) and P450-independent deacetylation of APAP to p-aminophenol (PAP). SD rats, however, have only the former pathway. This study was undertaken to investigate whether alterations in the metabolic pathways of APAP and in the intrinsic susceptibility to toxic metabolites are responsible for an enhancement of APAP nephrotoxicity in the fructose-pretreated SD-rats. In the non-pretreated rats, the inhibition of APAP oxidation by the MFO inhibitor, piperonyl butoxide, and deacetylation by carboxyesterase inhibitor, bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate, did not alter APAP-induced renal lesions. In contrast, these inhibitors protected the fructose-pretreated rats from APAP-induced renal lesions. Since there were no differences in the severity of gentamicin-, chloroform, and 45 min-ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal lesions between the non-pretreated and the fructose-pretreated rats, it is unlikely that the increased intrinsic susceptibility to chemicals and their metabolites in the fructose-pretreated rats is a major factor in the enhancement of APAP nephrotoxicity. These results indicate that the enhancement of APAP nephrotoxicity in the fructose-pretreated rats is due, at least in part, to an alteration in metabolic pathways of APAP.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acetaminophen / toxicity*
  • Acetylation
  • Animals
  • Drug Synergism
  • Fructose*
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / chemically induced
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / metabolism*
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / pathology*
  • Inactivation, Metabolic
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Male
  • Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Fructose
  • Acetaminophen