There is a causal link between unemployment and the deterioration in health status, but there is also an act of selection so that people with health problems have more problems in getting a new job. Unemployed men, especially the young, increase their alcohol consumption as compared with employed referents. Unemployed persons are smokers to a greater extent than employed persons, and smokers have a higher risk of becoming unemployed. Psychological indicators have been studied well in connection with health effects of unemployment. Losing, or gaining, employment has clear effects on psychiatric symptoms and on well-being. The death rate is increased among unemployed persons.