Enhanced, simplified glucose sensors: long-term clinical application of wearable artificial endocrine pancreas

Artif Organs. 1998 Jan;22(1):32-42. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1594.1998.06043.x.


At present, 2 major problems should be solved before long-term application of the wearable artificial endocrine pancreas, the development of a reliable and stable glucose monitoring system and the development of a subcutaneous insulin infusion algorithm. With either a miniaturized extracorporeal glucose monitoring system based on microdialysis sampling method or a ferrocene-mediated needle-type glucose sensor covered with highly biocompatible membrane, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (poly[MPC-co-BMA]) membrane, subcutaneous glucose concentrations could be monitored for 7 days without any in vivo calibrations, followed by 14 days with one point calibration. Considering the management and safety of the insulin delivery route, subcutaneous insulin infusion is obligatory. With the subcutaneous insulin infusion algorithm using a short acting insulin analogue (Insulin Lispro), near physiological glycemic control could be established in diabetic patients without showing any delayed hyperinsulinemia or hypoglycemia. The wearable artificial endocrine pancreas is now recognized as an excellent therapeutic tool for regulating blood glucose excursions physiologically in ambulatory diabetic patients on a long-term basis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biosensing Techniques*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / instrumentation
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy
  • Ferrous Compounds / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems / trends*
  • Insulin Lispro
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Metallocenes
  • Methacrylates / chemistry
  • Phosphorylcholine / analogs & derivatives
  • Phosphorylcholine / chemistry
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Rats


  • Blood Glucose
  • Ferrous Compounds
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Lispro
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Metallocenes
  • Methacrylates
  • Phosphorylcholine
  • poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate)
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol
  • ferrocene