In the decade that has elapsed since the discovery of the first peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS), considerable information has been obtained regarding the mechanism of protein import into peroxisomes. The PTSs responsible for the import of matrix and membrane proteins to peroxisomes, the receptors for several of these PTSs, and docking proteins for the PTS1 and PTS2 receptors are known. Many peroxins involved in peroxisomal protein import and biogenesis have been characterized genetically and biochemically. These studies have revealed important new insights regarding the mechanism of protein translocation across the peroxisomal membrane, the conservation of PEX genes through evolution, the role of peroxins in fatal human peroxisomal disorders, and the biogenesis of the organelle. It is clear that peroxisomal protein import and biogenesis have many features unique to this organelle alone. More recent studies on peroxisome degradation, division, and movement highlight newer aspects of the biology of this organelle that promise to be just as exciting and interesting as import and biogenesis.