A 32 year old man with symptoms of an upper respiratory infection one week prior presented with mental status changes, diffuse hyperreflexia, and bilateral extensor plantar responses. An MRI scan showed multifocal areas of high signal intensity predominantly in the parietal and occipital white matter, unassociated with mass affect. Despite aggressive treatment, the patient's symptoms rapidly progressed and he was declared brain dead. Post-mortem examination revealed acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy. The clinical and pathologic features of this disorder are reviewed.