Relation between neurological status, refractive error, and visual acuity in children: a clinical study

Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998 Jan;40(1):31-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1998.tb15353.x.


The aims of the present study were: (1) to determine the refractive status and visual acuity of a group of 75 neurologically impaired children (5 to 192 months of age); and (2) to investigate the relation between the visual and neurological status of these children. Refractive error was determined using non-cycloplegic near retinoscopy and visual acuity was estimated using acuity cards (Keeler or Cardiff) and pattern-onset visual evoked potentials (VEP). Subjects demonstrated a markedly different distribution of refractive error from that of a neurologically normal age-matched population. Refractive error anomalies were more prevalent in children older than 5 years, suggesting abnormal refractive development. A wide range of visual acuity was found with both tests (acuity cards, 0.07 to 2.08 logMAR; VEP, O.78 to 2.68 logMAR). Visual acuity and refractive status varied with level and type of physical impairment. Level of intellectual impairment exhibited a weak relation with visual status.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Central Nervous System Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cognition Disorders / complications
  • Developmental Disabilities / complications
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Refractive Errors / epidemiology*
  • Visual Acuity*