We have developed a three-color cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to detect plasma cell chromosomal aneuploidy in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and amyloidosis (AL). Immunofluorescent-labeled antibodies to detect light chain expression and six directly labeled alpha-satellite chromosome specific enumeration probes (CEP) were used simultaneously to detect aneuploidy of the plasma cells. The six probes were specific for chromosomes 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and X. The technique was tested in 12 consecutive patient samples (5 MM, 2 MGUS, 3 SMM, and 2 AL). Based on the alpha-satellite signals, we found trisomic clones for CEP 7 (4 of 12), CEP 11 (4 of 12), CEP X (1 of 12), CEP 9 (8 of 12), CEP 15 (7 of 12), and CEP 18 (5 of 12). Trisomic clones of at least one of the six chromosomes were present in 9 of 12 patients. We believe that this technique efficiently identifies monotypic plasma cells and permits simultaneous analysis of numeric chromosome anomalies by FISH in emerging neoplastic cells. We are in the process of applying this technique to a series of about 100 newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy patients.